Information on investment risks

The advice given below is designed as a primer for investing in money market and capital market instruments, and to help you recognize and define your own risk tolerance for investments. The information presented here however cannot replace talking in person with your account manager.

Therefore, we request that you read this information carefully. Your account manager will gladly answer any questions you might have.

Risk means the possibility of failing to achieve the expected return on an investment and/or losing all or part of the invested capital. Such risk may be due to a variety of causes, depending on the specific structure of the product concerned. Such causes may be inherent in the product, the markets, or the issuer. Since risks are not always foreseeable, the following discussion must not be considered to be conclusive.

In any case, investors should pay particularly close attention to any risk related to the credit rating of the issuer of a product, which always depends on the individual case.

The description of the investment products is based on the most typical product characteristics. The decisive factor is always the specific structure of the product in question. For that reason, the following description is no substitute for a thorough examination of the specific product by the investor.

Generally, the following should be kept in mind when investing in securities:

  1. The potential return of every investment depends directly on the degree of risk. The higher the potential return, the higher the risk.
  2. Irrational factors (sentiment, opinions, expectations, rumors) may also impact prices and thus the return on your investment.
  3. Investing in several different types of securities can help to reduce the risk of the overall position (principle of risk diversification).
  4. Every customer is responsible for the proper taxation of his or her investment. The credit institution is not permitted to give tax advice outside the scope of investment advice.

Currency risk
In the case of transactions in foreign currency, the return and performance of an investment depends not only on the local yield of the security in the foreign market, but also heavily on the exchange rate development of the respective foreign currency relative to the currency of the investor (e.g. euro). This means that exchange rate fluctuations may increase or decrease the return and value of the investment.

Transfer risk
Depending on the respective country involved, securities of foreign issuers pose the additional risk that political or exchange-control measures may complicate or even prevent the realisation of the investment. In addition, problems in connection with the settlement of an order may occur. In the case of foreign-currency transactions, such measures may obstruct the free convertibility of the currency.

Country risk
The country risk is the creditworthiness of a given country. The political or economic risk posed by a country may have negative consequences for all counterparties residing in this country.

Liquidity risk
Tradability (liquidity) refers to the possibility of buying or selling a security or closing out a position at the current market price at any time whatsoever. The market in a particular security is said to be narrow if an average sell order (measured by the usual trading volume) causes perceptible price fluctuations and if the order cannot be settled at all or only at a substantially lower price.

Credit risk
Credit risk refers to the possibility of counterpart default, i.e. the inability of one party to a transaction to meet obligations such as dividend payments, interest payments, repayment of principal when due or to meet such obligations for full value. Also called repayment risk or issuer's risk. Such risks are graded by means of “ratings”. A rating is scale of evaluation used to grade an issuer’s creditworthiness. The rating is prepared by rating agencies, notably on the basis of credit risk and country risk. The rating scale ranges from “AAA” (best credit rating) to “D” (worst credit rating).

Interest rate risk
The risk that losses will be incurred as a result of future interest rate movements in the market. A rise in interest rates on the market will lower the market price of a fixed-interest bond, whereas a fall in such interest rates will raise the market price of the bond.

Price risk
The risk of adverse movements in the value of individual investments. In the case of contingent liability transactions (forward exchange deals, futures, option writing, etc.), it is therefore necessary to provide collateral (margin requirement) or to put up further margin, which means tying up liquidity.

Risk of total loss
The risk that an investment may become completely worthless, e.g. due to its conception as a limited right. Total loss can occur, in particular, when the issuer of a security is no longer capable of meeting its payment obligations (insolvent), for economic or legal reasons.

Buying securities on credit
The purchase of securities on credit poses an increased risk. The credit raised must be repaid irrespective of the success of the investment. Furthermore, the credit costs reduce the return.

Placing orders
Buy or sell orders placed with the bank must at least indicate the designation of the investment, the quantity (number of securities/principal amount) to be purchased or sold, at what price the transaction should be carried out and over what period of time the order is valid.

Price limit
If buy or sell orders are placed with the instruction "at best" (no price limit), deals will be executed at the best possible price. This way, the capital requirement/selling proceeds remain unceratin. With a buy limit, the purchase price and thus the amount of capital employed is limited. No purchases will be made above the price limit. A sales limit stipulates the lowest acceptable selling price; no deals will be carried out below this price limit.

Important note: A stop market order will not be executed until the price formed on the stock reaches the selected stop limit. Once the order has been executed, it will enter into effect as an “at best” order, i.e. with no price limit. The price actually obtained may therefore differ significantly from the selected stop limit, especially in the case of securities on a tight market.

Time limit
You can set a time limit to determine the validity of orders. The period of validity of unlimited orders depends on the practices of the respective stock market.

Your CA investment adviser will inform you of further additions which can be made when placing an order.

The term “guaranty” may have a variety of meanings. The first meaning is the commitment made by a third party other than the issuer in order to ensure that the issuer will meet its liabilities. Another meaning is a commitment made by the issuer itself to perform a certain action regardless of the trend in certain indicators that would otherwise determine the amount of the issuer’s liability. Guaranties may also be related to a wide variety of other circumstances.

Capital guaranties are usually enforceable only until end of term (repayment), so that price fluctuations (price losses) are quite possible during the term. The quality of a capital guaranty depends to a significant extent on the guarantor’s creditworthiness.

Tax considerations
Your CA investment adviser will provide you with information on the general fiscal aspects of the individual investment products. The impact of an investment on your personal tax bill must be evaluated together with a tax consultant.

Risks on stock markets, especially secondary markets (e.g. Eastern Europe, Latin America, etc.)
There is no direct line of communications with most of the stock exchanges on secondary markets, i.e. all the orders must be forwarded by telephone. This can lead to mistakes or time delays.

In certain secondary stock markets, limited buy and sell orders are generally not possible. This means that limited orders cannot be given until the request has been made by telephone with the local broker, which can lead to time delays. In certain cases, such limits cannot be executed at all.

In certain stock markets it is difficult to receive the current prices on an ongoing basis, which makes it difficult to assess the customer’s existing position.

If a trading quotation is discontinued on stock exchange, it may no longer be possible to see such securities on the exchange in question. A transfer to another stock market may also cause problems.

In certain exchanges of secondary markets, the trading hours by no means correspond to Western European standards. Short trading hours of only three or four hours per day can lead to bottlenecks or failure to process securities orders.

Shares are securities evidencing an interest held in an enterprise (public limited company). The principal rights of shareholders are participating in the company's profits as well as the right to vote in the shareholders' meeting (exception: preferred stock).

The yield on equity investments is composed of dividend payments as well as price gains or losses and cannot be predicted with certainty. The dividend is the distribution of earnings to shareholders as decided at the shareholders’ meeting. The dividend amount is expressed either as an absolute amount per share or as a percentage of the nominal value of the stock. The yield obtained from the dividend in relation to the share price is called dividend yield. In general, it is considerably lower than the dividend indicated as a percentage of the nominal value.

The greater part of earnings from equity investments is usually achieved from the stock's performance/price trend (see price risk).

Price risk
Stocks are usually traded on a public exchange. As a rule, prices are established daily on the basis of supply and demand. Investments in stocks may lead to considerable losses.

In general, the price of a stock depends on the business trend of the respective company as well as the general economic and political setting. Besides, irrational factors (investor sentiment, public opinion) may also influence the share price trend and thus the return on an investment

Credit risk
As a shareholder, you hold an interest in a company. Consequently, your investments may be rendered worthless in particular by the company's insolvency.

Liquidity risk
Tradability may be limited in the case of shares with a narrow market (especially stocks quoted in the "Unregulated Market, over-the-counter trade).

If a stock is quoted in several stock exchanges, that may lead to differences in its negotiability on different international stock exchanges (e.g. quotation of an American stock in Frankfurt).

Stock trading
Stocks are traded on a public exchange and sometimes over-the-counter. In the case of stock exchange trading, the relevant stock exchange rules (trading lots, order types, contract settlement, etc.) must be observed. If a share is quoted at different stock exchanges in different currencies (e.g. a US stock quoted in euros at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange) it also entails an exchange rate risk. Please contact your investment adviser for further details.

When purchasing a stock in a foreign exchange, please bear in mind that foreign exchanges always charge “third-party fees” that accrue in addition to the bank’s usual fees. For the exact amount of such fees, contact your customer adviser.